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[Caml-list] Restricting Method Overriding/Redefinition in Subclass
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Date: -- (:)
From: John Prevost <j.prevost@g...>
Subject: Re: Re: [Caml-list] Restricting Method Overriding/Redefinition in Subclass
John Skaller's solution is probably a good choice here.

To understand why restricting subclassing doesn't do much good in
O'Caml, you have to understand how O'Caml's object system is different
from that of most class-based languages you've worked with before.

The key insight is in the area of subtyping.  In C++, Java, and the
like, subtyping and subclassing are combined with each other.  You
cannot have a value which is of type A unless that value's class is
either A or a subclass of A.  Here's an example from Java:

class A {
    public int getX() { return 1; }
}

class B {
    public int getX() { return 2; }
    public int getY() { return 3; }
}

B is not a subclass of A (it is not declared as "extends A"),
therefore an instance of class B cannot be used where an instance of
class A is expected.  In O'Caml, this is distinctly not the case:

class a =
  object
    method get_x () = 1
  end

class b =
  object
    method get_x () = 2
    method get_y () = 3
  end

let use_get_x o = o#get_x

Here, the function "use_get_x" can be used on instances of any class
that contains a method get_x : unit -> int.  This is called
"structural subtyping".  The subtype relationship is based purely on
what methods exist, not on what classes have been declared to be
subclasses of others.

So for your example, where you want to restrict the implementation of
the subclasses, you can't really do it--any object that has all of the
methods of class base_class can be coerced to type base_class and
added with add_child.  So even if you were to restrict how your
subclasses have to work, you can't be sure that the values you're
given are actually produced from those subclasses.  (Well, not totally
true: you can do it if you make your class type opaque--but this will
prevent subclassing entirely, which you don't want.)

At this point, you may be wondering "Why is O'Caml like this?  Is it a
good thing to separate subtyping and subclassing this way?"  So I'll
give a couple of examples of how this type discipline is less of a
pain than the one used by Java.

1) Implementing multiple interfaces.

In Java, things sometimes get awkward if you want to work with values
that implement multiple interfaces at once:

interface Colored {
   Color getColor();
}

interface HasPoint {
    Point getPoint();
}

class MyThingy implements Colored, HasPoint {
    ...
}

Okay, so the difficulty in this set of classes and interfaces (which
*has* actually bitten me in the wild fairly frequently) is that there
is no way to declare a variable as "any object that is of both type
Colored and type HasPoint."  If we do this:

interface ColoredHasPoint extends Colored, HasPoint { ... }

then MyThingy is not an instance of ColoredHasPoint.  It has all of
the appropriate methods, but it was not *declared* to have this type. 
Therefore, it does not have the correct type.  So you end up having to
write:

    void useColoredHasPoint(Object o) {
        Colored c = (Colored) o;
        HasPoint h = (HasPoint) o;
        ... = c.getColor();
        ... = h.getPoint();
    }

and obviously the system has now broken down.  AS long as you work
with only one interface at a time, you're in fine shape.  As soon as
you need more than one and have no other requirements, you're in
trouble.  In O'Caml, of course, the above is trivial:

    let use_colored_has_point o =
       let color = o#get_color () in
       let point = o#get_point () in
       ...

2) Subclasses that are not subtypes

This is a really interesting case, actually.  The short explanation is
that if you let subclassing not require subtyping, then you can change
the types of the arguments of the subclass's methods.  That raises the
question "Why would you want to do that?"

Say you have a class that implements linked lists:

# class ['a] linked_list (x : 'a) =
    object (_ : 's)                 (* self type for the "next" pointer *)
      val mutable next = (None : 's option)
      method set_next n = next <- Some n
      method clear_next () = next <- None
      method next = next
      method value = x
    end;;
class ['a] linked_list :
  'a ->
  object ('b)
    val mutable next : 'b option
    method clear_next : unit -> unit
    method next : 'b option
    method set_next : 'b -> unit
    method value : 'a
  end

Now, looking at this type, we see that there's a method "set_next"
that takes the self type as an argument.  As a result, *any* subclass
of linked_list that adds methods will not in fact be a subtype.  So
why would you ever want to subclass this, anyway?  Well, perhaps you
want to *re-use code* when writing a doubly linked list.

# class ['a] doubly_linked_list (x : 'a) =
    object (self : 's)
      inherit ['a] linked_list x as ll
      val mutable prev = (None : 's option)
      method set_next n = match next with
        | None -> ll#set_next n
        | Some n' when n = n' -> ()
        | Some n' -> (ll#set_next n; n'#clear_next (); n#set_next self)
      method set_prev p = match prev with
        | None -> prev <- Some p
        | Some p' when p = p' -> ()
        | Some p' -> (prev <- Some p; p'#clear_next (); p#set_next self)
      method clear_prev () = match prev with
        | None -> ()
        | Some p -> (prev <- None; p#clear_next ())
      method prev = prev
    end;;
class ['a] doubly_linked_list :
  'a ->
  object ('b)
    val mutable next : 'b option
    val mutable prev : 'b option
    method clear_next : unit -> unit
    method clear_prev : unit -> unit
    method next : 'b option
    method prev : 'b option
    method set_next : 'b -> unit
    method set_prev : 'b -> unit
    method value : 'a
  end

And we see upon using them:

# let w = new linked_list 10
  let x = new linked_list 20
  let y = new doubly_linked_list 30
  let z = new doubly_linked_list 40;;
val w : int linked_list = <obj>
val x : int linked_list = <obj>
val y : int doubly_linked_list = <obj>
val z : int doubly_linked_list = <obj>
# w#set_next x;;
- : unit = ()
# y#set_next z;;
- : unit = ()
# x#set_next y;;
This expression has type int doubly_linked_list but is here used with type
  int linked_list
Only the first object type has a method clear_prev
# z#set_next w;;
This expression has type int linked_list but is here used with type
  int doubly_linked_list
Only the second object type has a method clear_prev

We see upon using them that these types aren't compatible in
O'Caml--not in either direction.  A linked_list cannot be used as a
doubly_linked_list, a doubly_linked_list cannot be used as a linked
list.  And it turns out that this stays true even if you try to coerve
the types.  Why?  Because the doubly_linked_list only works if its
"prev" and "next" pointers are also doubly linked lists--it needs to
update its neighbours to make sure that x -next-> y implies that y
-prev-> x.

On the other hand:

# let rec iter_list f l =
    match l#next with
      | None -> f l
      | Some n -> f l; iter_list f n;;
val iter_list : ((< next : 'a option; .. > as 'a) -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b = <fun>
# iter_list (fun v -> Printf.printf "%d\n" v#value) w;;
10
20
- : unit = ()
# iter_list (fun v -> Printf.printf "%d\n" v#value) y;;
30
40
- : unit = ()

This works because both the linked_list and doubly_linked_list types
are subtypes of a third object type: the one that only cares about the
"next" and "value" methods, and doesn't touch the set_next method or
anything else.


So anyway, the whole point here is that "class x is a subclass of
class y" does not entail "type x is a subtype of type y".  And this is
a good thing, because it enriches our world.  Now subtyping means that
two values can be used in the same contexts (iter_list works on both
linked_list and doubly_linked_list, even though they've not been
declared as subclasses of < next : 'a option >).  And subclassing
means that we're sharing code (linked_list and doubly_linked_list
share code, even though their types are incompatible.)


I hope my long-winded explanation was useful.

John.

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