Avoiding shared data
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Date:   (:) 
From:  Thomas Fischbacher <Thomas.Fischbacher@P...> 
Subject:  Re: Ant: Re: Ant: Re: [Camllist] Avoiding shared data 
On Mon, 3 Oct 2005, skaller wrote: > > I hope that one day functional language compilers will > > do that optimization for you  convert a > > nontailrecursive code into a tailrecursive one. Do > > you know of some progress in that direction? > > Isn't that just CPS? He presumably wanted to see a different thing, e.g. automatically transforming let rec fac1 x = if x = 0 then 1 else x*(fac1 (x1)) ;; into let fac2 x = let rec walk so_far todo = if todo = 0 then so_far else walk (todo*so_far) (todo1) in walk 1 x ;; My impression is that it may indeed be possible to do something like this for simple applications, but that the cases that can be covered automatically presumably are so limited that an experienced programmer will usually want to attack them by going to a higher form of abstraction and not waste time on such things anyway. I think that Olin Shivers indeed does have a valid point in pointing out that writing loops in tailrecursive style has major disadvantages. However, my impression still is that as soon as someone thinks in terms of "I have to write a loop for this", chances are good that he may improve his design by going back one step and ask the question "what do I want to use that loop for?". In quite many situations, it is possible to express one's thoughts more directly via other means, such as Array.map, fold_left, etc. What I (as a pedestrian) especially do not like about loops is that it is much easier to make offbyone errors than with any form of recursion which contains a basecase/recursivecase analysis. Unfortunately, the OCaml native code compiler apparently is not yet smart enough to optimize code written in such a higherorder style well enough so that it can compete with imperative or tailrecursive code in timecritical applications. (Though quite many applications in fact are not.) At present, one can expect to lose about a factor of ~3 in performance. Example: ===> let timing_apply f x = let t0 = Unix.gettimeofday() in let f_x = f x in let t1 = Unix.gettimeofday() in (f_x,t1.t0) ;; let my_array_fold_left f init arr = let len = Array.length arr in let rec walk so_far pos = if pos=len then so_far else walk (f so_far arr.(pos)) (1+pos) in walk init 0 ;; let test m n = let arr = Array.init m (fun j > Array.init n (fun k > j*k+k)) in let scratchpad = ref 0 in (*  *) let rec frobenius1 mx = Array.fold_left (fun so_far row > Array.fold_left (fun so_far entry > so_far+entry*entry) so_far row) 0 mx in let frobenius2 mx = my_array_fold_left (fun so_far row > my_array_fold_left (fun so_far entry > so_far+entry*entry) so_far row) 0 mx in let frobenius3 mx = begin scratchpad := 0; for i=0 to (Array.length mx)1 do let row = mx.(i) in for j=0 to (Array.length row)1 do scratchpad:= !scratchpad + row.(j)*row.(j); done; done; !scratchpad end in let frobenius4 mx = let nr_rows = Array.length mx in let rec walk_rows so_far nr_row = if nr_row = nr_rows then so_far else let row = mx.(nr_row) in let len_row = Array.length row in let rec walk_cols so_far nr_col = if nr_col = len_row then so_far else walk_cols (so_far+row.(nr_col)*row.(nr_col)) (1+nr_col) in walk_rows (walk_cols so_far 0) (1+nr_row) in walk_rows 0 0 in let frobenius5 mx = let nr_rows = Array.length mx in let rec walk_rows so_far nr_row = if nr_row = nr_rows then so_far else let row = mx.(nr_row) in let len_row = Array.length row in let rec walk_cols row so_far nr_col = if nr_col = len_row then so_far else walk_cols row (so_far+row.(nr_col)*row.(nr_col)) (1+nr_col) in walk_rows (walk_cols row so_far 0) (1+nr_row) in walk_rows 0 0 in let compute_n_times n f x = let rec walk k = if k = n then f x else let () = ignore(f x) in walk (k+1) in walk 1 in Array.map (fun f > timing_apply (compute_n_times 1000 f) arr) [frobenius1;frobenius2;frobenius3;frobenius4;frobenius5] ;; let result = test 1000 3 in Array.iteri (fun nr (_,t) > Printf.printf "%d: %f\n" (1+nr) t) result ;; <=== ocamlc: 1: 0.987257 2: 1.196910 3: 0.709074 4: 0.858948 5: 0.984935 ocamlopt: 1: 0.066404 2: 0.075691 3: 0.025450 4: 0.025756 5: 0.023472  regards, tf@cip.physik.unimuenchen.de (o_ Thomas Fischbacher  http://www.cip.physik.unimuenchen.de/~tf //\ (lambda (n) ((lambda (p q r) (p p q r)) (lambda (g x y) V_/_ (if (= x 0) y (g g ( x 1) (* x y)))) n 1)) (Debian GNU)