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speeding up matrix multiplication (newbie question)
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Date: 2009-02-20 (22:23)
From: Mike Lin <nilekim@g...>
Subject: Re: [Caml-list] speeding up matrix multiplication (newbie question)
Erick, we should compare notes sometime. I have a lot of code for doing this
kind of stuff (I am working on empirical codon models with 61x61 rate
matrices). The right way to speed up matrix-vector operations is to use BLAS
via either Lacaml or ocamlgsl. But if, like me, you like to
counterproductively fiddle around with stupid things, here's a little ocaml
library I wrote that links to a C function to do vector-vector dot using
SSE2 vectorization.


IIRC in my tests it gave about 50% speedup vs. the obvious C code and 100%
speedup vs. the obvious ocaml code. But, I am doing 61x61 and I'm not sure
if the speedup scales down to 20x20 or especially 4x4.


On Fri, Feb 20, 2009 at 2:53 PM, Erick Matsen <matsen@berkeley.edu> wrote:

> Wow, once again I am amazed by the vitality of this list. Thank you
> for your suggestions.
> Here is the context: we are interested in calculating the likelihood
> of taxonomic placement of short "metagenomics" sequence fragments from
> unknown organisms in the ocean. We start by assuming a model of
> sequence evolution, which is a reversible Markov chain. The taxonomy
> is represented as a tree, and the sequence information is a collection
> of likelihoods of sequence identities. As we move up the tree, these
> sequences "evolve" by getting multiplied by the exponentiated
> instantaneous Markov matrix.
> The matrices are of the size of the sequence model: 4x4 when looking
> at nucleotides, and 20x20 when looking at proteins.
> The bottleneck is (I mis-spoke before) that we are multiplying many
> length-4 or length-20 vectors by a collection of matrices which
> represent the time evolution of those sequences as follows.
> Outer loop:
>  modify the amount of time each markov process runs
>  exponentiate the rate matrices to get transition matrices
>  Recur over the tree, starting at the leaves:
>    at a node, multiply all of the daughter likelihood vectors together
>    return the multiplication of that product by the trasition matrix
> (bottleneck!)
> The trees are on the order of 50 leaves, and there are about 500
> likelihood vectors done at once.
> All of this gets run on a big cluster of Xeons. It's not worth
> parallelizing because we are running many instances of this process
> already, which fills up the cluster nodes.
> So far I have been doing the simplest thing possible, which is just to
> multiply the matrices out like \sum_j a_ij v_j. Um, this is a bit
> embarassing.
> let mul_vec m v =
>    if Array.length v <> n_cols m then
>      failwith "mul_vec: matrix size and vector size don't match!";
>    let result = Array.create (n_rows m) N.zero in
>    for i=0 to (n_rows m)-1 do
>      for j=0 to (n_cols m)-1 do
>        result.(i) <- N.add result.(i) (N.mul (get m i j) v.(j))
>      done;
>    done;
>    result
> I have implemented it in a functorial way for flexibility. N is the
> number class. How much improvement might I hope for if I make a
> dedicated float vector multiplication function? I'm sorry, I know
> nothing about "boxing." Where can I read about that?
> Thank you again,
> Erick
> On Fri, Feb 20, 2009 at 10:46 AM, Xavier Leroy <Xavier.Leroy@inria.fr>
> wrote:
> >> I'm working on speeding up some code, and I wanted to check with
> >> someone before implementation.
> >>
> >> As you can see below, the code primarily spends its time multiplying
> >> relatively small matrices. Precision is of course important but not
> >> an incredibly crucial issue, as the most important thing is relative
> >> comparison between things which *should* be pretty different.
> >
> > You need to post your matrix multiplication code so that the regulars
> > on this list can tear it to pieces :-)
> >
> > From the profile you gave, it looks like you parameterized your matrix
> > multiplication code over the + and * operations over matrix elements.
> > This is good for genericity but not so good for performance, as it
> > will result in more boxing (heap allocation) of floating-point values.
> > The first thing you should try is write a version of matrix
> > multiplication that is specialized for type "float".
> >
> > Then, there are several ways to write the textbook matrix
> > multiplication algorithm, some of which perform less boxing than
> > others.  Again, post your code and we'll let you know.
> >
> >> Currently I'm just using native (double-precision) ocaml floats and
> >> the native ocaml arrays for a first pass on the problem.  Now I'm
> >> thinking about moving to using float32 bigarrays, and I'm hoping
> >> that the code will double in speed. I'd like to know: is that
> >> realistic? Any other suggestions?
> >
> > It won't double in speed: arithmetic operations will take exactly the
> > same time in single or double precision.  What single-precision
> > bigarrays buy you is halving the memory footprint of your matrices.
> > That could result in better cache behavior and therefore slightly
> > better speed, but it depends very much on the sizes and number of your
> > matrices.
> >
> > - Xavier Leroy
> >
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