# How to pretty-print (to use format'' ?) ?

Contact the author Pierre.Weis@inria.fr

Created in November 1996.

The pretty-printing facility provided by the format module is used to get a fancy display for printing routines. This module provides a pretty-printing engine'' that is intended to break lines in a nice way (let's say automatically when it is necessary'').

## Principles

Breaking of lines is based on 2 concepts:

• boxes : a box is a logical pretty-printing unit, which defines a behavior of the pretty-printing engine.
• breaks : a break is a hint given to the pretty-printing engine, to tell it where to break lines. Otherwise the pretty-printing engine never break lines (except in case of emergency'' to avoid very bad output). (In addition, when the pretty printing engine starts a new line, there are rules, depending on the currently opened boxes, to fix the indentation of the new line (the leading spaces at the beginning of the line).)

## Boxes

There are 4 types of boxes. (The most often used is the hov'' box type, so skip the rest at first reading).

• horizontal box (h box, as obtained by the open_hbox procedure): in this box breaks do not lead to line breaks.
• vertical box (v box, as obtained by the open_vbox procedure): every break hint lead to a new line.
• vertical/horizontal box (hv box, as obtained by the open_hvbox procedure): if it is possible, the entire box is written on a single line; otherwise every break hint lead to a new line.
• vertical or horizontal box (hov box, as obtained by the open_box or open_hovbox procedures): break hints are used to cut the line when there is no more room on the line. There are two kinds of hov'' boxes, you can find details below. In first approximation, let me consider these two kinds of hov'' boxes as equivalent and obtained by calling the open_box procedure.

Let me give an example. Suppose we can write 10 chars before the right margin (that indicates no more room). We represent any char as -, [ and ] indicates opening and closing of box and b stands for a break hint found in the output by the pretty-printing engine.

The output "--b--b--" is displayed like this (the b symbol stands for the value of the break that is explained below):

• within a h'' box:
   --b--b--

• within a v'' box:
   --b
--b
--

• within a hv'' box:

If there is enough room to print the box on the line:

   --b--b--


But "---b---b---" that cannot fit on the line is written

   ---b
---b
---

• within a hov'' box:

If there is enough room to print the box on the line:

   --b--b--


But if "---b---b---" cannot fit on the line, it is written as

   ---b---b
---


The first break does not lead to a new line, since there is enough room on the line. The second one leads to a new line since there is no more room to print the material following it. If the room left on the line were even shorter, the first break hint may lead to a new line and "---b---b---" is written as:

    ---b
---b
---


## Printing spaces

Break hints are also used to output spaces (if the line is not split when the break is encountered, otherwise the new line indicates properly the separation between printing items). You output a break hint using print_break sp indent, and this sp integer is used to print sp'' spaces. Thus print_break sp ... may be thought as: print sp spaces or output a new line.

For instance, if b is break 1 0 in the output "--b--b--", we get

• within a h'' box:
   -- -- --

• within a v'' box:
   --
--
--

• within a hv'' box:
   -- -- --


or (according to the remaining room on the line)

   --
--
--

• and similarly for hov'' boxes.

Generally speaking, a printing routine using "format", should not directly output white spaces: the routine should use break hints instead. (For instance print_space () that is a convenient abbrev for print_break 1 0 and outputs a single space or break the line.)

## Indentation of new lines

The user gets 2 ways to fix the indentation of new lines:

• when defining the box where it occurs: when opening a box, you may fix the indentation added to each new line opened within the box.
For instance: open_hovbox 1 opens a hov'' box with new lines indented 1 more than the initial indentation of the box.
With output "---[--b--b--b--", we get:
   ---[--b--b
--b--

with open_hovbox 2, we get
   ---[--b--b
--b--

Note: the [ sign in the display is actually not visible on the screen, it is just there to materialize the aperture of the pretty-printing box. Last screen'' stands for:
    -----b--b
--b--

• when defining the break that makes the new line. As said above, you output a break hint using print_break sp indent. The indent integer is used to fix the indentation of the new line. Namely it is added to the default indentation offset of the box where the break occurs.
For instance, if [ stands for the opening of a hov'' box with 1 as extra indentation (as obtained by open_hovbox 1), and b is print_break 1 2, then from output "---[--b--b--b--", we get:
   ---[-- --
--
--

• Other operations: print_cut, print_as, force_newline, print_flush,printf.
• For more details, see the module format.

## Refinement on hov'' boxes

### Packing and structural hov'' boxes

The hov'' box type is refined into two categories.

• the vertical or horizontal packing box (as obtained by the open_hovbox procedure): break hints are used to cut the line when there is no more room on the line; no new line occurs if there is enough room on the line.
• vertical or horizontal structural box (as obtained by the open_box procedure): similar to the hov'' packing box, the break hints are used to cut the line when there is no more room on the line; break hints that can show the box structure lead to new lines even if there is enough room on the current line.

### Differences between a packing and a structural hov'' box

The difference between a packing and a structural hov'' box is shown by a routine that closes boxes and parens at the end of printing: with packing boxes, the closure of boxes and parens do not lead to new lines if there is enough room on the line, whereas with structural boxes each break hint will lead to a new line. For instance, when printing "[(---[(----[(---b)]b)]b)]", where "b" is a break hint without extra indentation (print_cut ()). If "[" means opening of a packing hov'' box (open_hovbox), "[(---[(----[(---b)]b)]b)]" is printed as follows:

(---
(----
(---)))

If we replace the packing boxes by structural boxes (open_box), each break hint that precedes a closing paren can show the boxes structure, if it leads to a new line; hence "[(---[(----[(---b)]b)]b)]" is printed like this:
(---
(----
(---
)
)
)


## Practice

When writing a pretty-printing routine, follow these simple rules:

1. Boxes must be opened and closed consistently (open_* and close_box must be nested like parens).
2. Never hesitate to open a box.
3. Output many break hints, otherwise the pretty-printer is in a bad situation where it tries to do its best, which is always worse than your bad''.
4. Don't try to force spacing using explicit spaces in the character string. For each space you want in the output emit a break hint (print_space ()) unless you explicitly don't want the line to be broken here. For instance, imagine you want to pretty print a definition in a Caml like language, for instance let rec ident = expression. You will probably treat the first three spaces as unbreakable spaces'' and write them directly in the string constants for keywords, "let rec " before the identifier and " =" after it. However, the space preceding the expression will certainly be a break hint, since breaking the line after the =Don't try to force line breaking, let the pretty-printer do it for you: that's its only job.
5. Never put newline characters directly in the strings to be printed: pretty printing engine will consider this newline character as any other character written on the current line and this will completely mess up the output. Instead of new line characters use line breaking hints: if those breaking hints must always result in new lines, it just means that the surrounding box must be a vertical box!
6. End your main program by a print_newline () call, that flushes the pretty-printer tables (hence the output). (Note that the toplevel loop of the interactive system does it as well, just before a new input.)

## Using the printf function

The format module provides a general printing facility à la'' printf. In addition to the usual conversion facility provided by printf, you can write pretty-printing indications directly into the string format (opening and closing boxes, indicating breaking hints, etc).

Pretty-printing annotations are introduced by the @ symbol, directly into the string format. Almost any function of the format module can be called from within a printf format. For instance

• @['' open a box (open_box 0). You may precise the type as an extra argument. For instance @[<hov n> is equivalent to open_hovbox n.
• @]'' close the last open box (close_box ()).
• @ '' output a breakable space (print_space ()).
• @,'' output a simple break hint (print_cut ()).
• @.'' end the pretty-printing, closing all the boxes still opened (print_newline ()).
• @;<n m>'' emit a full'' break hint (print_break n m). If the <n m>'' part is omitted the full break defaults to a simple break hint (@,).
• @?'' output pending material in the pretty-printer queue (print_flush ()).
For instance
printf "@[<1>%s@ =@ %d@ %s@]@." "Prix TTC" 100 "Euros";;
Prix TTC = 100 Euros
- : unit = ()


A more realistic example is given below.

## Working example

Let me give a full example: the shortest non trivial example you could imagine, that is the $\lambda-$calculus :)

Thus the problem is to pretty-print the values of a concrete data type that implements a model of a language of expressions that defines functions and their applications to arguments.

First, I give the abstract syntax of lambda-terms, then a lexical analyzer and a parser for this language:

type lambda =
| Lambda of string * lambda
| Var of string
| Apply of lambda * lambda;;

(* The lexer using the genlex module from standard library *)
#open "genlex";;
let lexer = make_lexer ["."; "\\"; "("; ")"];;

(* The syntax analyzer, using streams *)
let rec exp0 = function
| [< 'Ident s >] -> Var s
| [< 'Kwd "("; lambda lam; 'Kwd ")" >] -> lam

and app = function
| [< exp0 e; (other_applications e) lam >] -> lam

and other_applications f = function
| [< exp0 arg; stream >] ->
other_applications (Apply (f, arg)) stream
| [<>] -> f

and lambda = function
| [< 'Kwd "\\"; 'Ident s; 'Kwd "."; lambda lam >] ->
Lambda (s, lam)
| [< app e >] -> e;;


Let's try this parser with the interactive toplevel loop:

#let parse_lambda s = lambda (lexer (stream_of_string s));;
parse_lambda : string -> lambda = <fun>
#parse_lambda "(\x.x)";;
- : lambda = Lambda ("x", Var "x")


Now, I use the format library to print the lambda-terms: I follow the recursive shape of the preceding parser to write the pretty-printer, inserting here and there the desired break hints and opening (and closing) boxes:

#open "format";;

let ident = print_string;;
let kwd = print_string;;

let rec print_exp0 = function
| Var s ->  ident s
| lam -> open_hovbox 1; kwd "("; print_lambda lam; kwd ")"; close_box ()

and print_app = function
| e -> open_hovbox 2; print_other_applications e; close_box ()

and print_other_applications f =
match f with
| Apply (f, arg) -> print_app f; print_space (); print_exp0 arg
| f -> print_exp0 f

and print_lambda = function
| Lambda (s, lam) ->
open_hovbox 1;
kwd "\\"; ident s; kwd "."; print_space(); print_lambda lam;
close_box()
| e -> print_app e;;


Now we get:

print_lambda (parse_lambda "(\x.x)");;
\x. x- : unit = ()


(Note that parens are handled properly by the pretty-printer that prints the minimum number of parens compatible with a proper input back to the parser.)

print_lambda (parse_lambda "(x y) z");;
x y z- : unit = ()

print_lambda (parse_lambda "x y z");;
x y z- : unit = ()


If you use this pretty-printer for debugging purpose with the toplevel, declare it with install_printer, such that the Caml toplevel loop will use it to print values of type lambda:

install_printer "print_lambda";;
- : unit = ()

parse_lambda "(\x. (\y. x y))";;
- : lambda = \x. \y. x y

parse_lambda "((\x. (\y. x y)) (\z.z))";;
- : lambda = (\x. \y. x y) (\z. z)


This works very fine in conjunction with the trace facility of the interactive system (well in fact, as soon as values manipulated by the programs are a bit complex, I consider the definition of a pretty-printer using format as mandatory to get a readable trace output):

trace"lambda";;
La fonction lambda est dorénavant tracée.
- : unit = ()

parse_lambda
"((\ident. (\other_ident. ident other_ident)) \
(\Bar.Bar Bar)) (\foobar. (foobar foobar) foobar)";;
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda --> ident other_ident
lambda --> \other_ident. ident other_ident
lambda --> \other_ident. ident other_ident
lambda --> \ident. \other_ident. ident other_ident
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda --> Bar Bar
lambda --> \Bar. Bar Bar
lambda --> (\ident. \other_ident. ident other_ident) (\Bar. Bar Bar)
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda <-- <abstr>
lambda --> foobar foobar
lambda --> foobar foobar foobar
lambda --> \foobar. foobar foobar foobar
lambda --> (\ident. \other_ident. ident other_ident) (\Bar. Bar Bar)
(\foobar. foobar foobar foobar)
- : lambda =
(\ident. \other_ident. ident other_ident) (\Bar. Bar Bar)
(\foobar. foobar foobar foobar)


## Using the printf function

We use the fprintf function and the pretty-printing functions get an extra argument, namely a pretty-printing formatter (the ppf argument) where printing will occur. This way the printing routines are a bit more general, since they may print on any formatter defined in the program, and furthermore they may be used in conjunction with the special %a format, that prints a printf argument with a supplied user's defined function (these user's functions must have a formatter as first argument). For instance

fprintf ppf "(%a)" pr_lambda lam

prints the lam argument, using the pr_lambda function (and we must have pr_lambda : formatter -> lambda -> unit).

Using printf formats, the lambda-terms printing routines can be written as follows:

#open "format";;

let ident ppf s = fprintf ppf "%s" s;;
let kwd ppf s =  fprintf ppf "%s" s;;

let rec pr_exp0 ppf = function
| Var s ->  ident ppf s
| lam -> fprintf ppf "@[<1>(%a)@]" pr_lambda lam

and pr_app ppf = function
| e ->  fprintf ppf "@[<2>%a@]" pr_other_applications e

and pr_other_applications ppf f =
match f with
| Apply (f, arg) -> fprintf ppf "%a@ %a" pr_app f pr_exp0 arg
| f -> pr_exp0 ppf f

and pr_lambda ppf = function
| Lambda (s, lam) ->
fprintf ppf "@[<1>%a%a%a@ %a@]" kwd "\\" ident s kwd "." pr_lambda lam
| e -> pr_app ppf e;;

let print_lambda = pr_lambda std_formatter;;

We get:
print_lambda (parse_lambda "(\x.x)");;
\x. x- : unit = ()